Discuss various approaches to technology development.

Discuss various approaches to technology development. Explain the technology development approach adopted in your organisation or through an example you know.

For all the countries, the most practical strategy for technology development is to ‘make some and buy some’ This gives the advantage of selecting an appropriate area of specialization and the potential to exploit the technology trade in the international market place.

The complex process of technology development is schematically presented in figure.

The technological needs are derived from national socio—economic goals. A country’s technology development strategy is then determined by combining these identified technology needs with potential technological developments in the world and a through assessment of available land emerging technologies. Then the country determines a strategy to import technologies which it cannot practically develop itself and identifies technologies which can be produced locally. Now, there is a universal realization that unless a concerted attempt is made to build local technological capabilities for absorbing imported technologies, any attempt to develop indigenous technologies encounters enormous difficulties. Even with regard to imported technology, it is essential for a country to be able to select, digest, adapt and improve it for local consumption. All of these efforts justify greater priority and allocation of resources to R&D. A per—requisite for effective utilization for R&D resources is the development of technological infrastructure within the country, including institution building, manpower development, provision of support facilities and creation of an innovative climate.
The following general principles with regard to the planning for development of indigenous technological capabilities may be kept in view :
i) It is important to be selective in self—development of technology. Emphasis should be given to total integration of all activities in the technology production chain to achieve self—reliance.
ii) In selecting areas for development, a country can be inward—looking in some areas and outward—looking in some other areas.
iii) Import substitution can only be a temporary strategy.
iv) In the technology production chain, a number of activities involving basic and applied research can be undertaken, but it is important to be able discard some of the non—productive projects and concentrate, from time to time upon those which have high commercial potential.
v) Technology development is best achieved through collective effort. Individuality, which tends to aim at being unique rather than practical should be minimized.


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